Kaufman and Robinson, including its founders and staff, have made creditable, significant and sustaining contributions to broad ion beam technology. These contributions have come in the form of ion source designs, applicable publications and a patent portfolio.
 The ion and electron source designs have been a commercial success with over 3500 sources shipped through its licensed clients. The product technology is comprehensive and relevant as seen below:

Gridded Ion Source Technology:

  • Both DC and RF plasma discharge products
  • Ion optic sizes ranging from 1cm to 38cm diameter

Gridless end-Hall Ion-Plasma Source Technology:

  • Both cylindrical and rectangular products
  • Source sizes ranging from 6cm to 25cm diameter for the cylindrical
  • Source sizes ranging from 20cm to 100cm long for the rectangular

Electron Source Technology:

  • Non-immersed sources, including hollow cathode and plasma bridge products


Kaufman and Robinson staff members have authored or contributed to over 100 publications. Whether they are journal articles, books, book chapters, or technical notes, the body of literature is relevant to the technology of broad beam equipment and material processing as seen below:

Ion Source Technology

  • “Physics of Closed Drift Thrusters,” J. Plasma Sources Sci. Technology, 1999.
  • “Coverage, Uniformity and Divergence”, Technical Note, Commonwealth Scientific Corporation, 2001
  • Operation of Broad-Beam Sources, Commonwealth Scientific Corporation, 1987.
  • “Characteristics, Capabilities, and Applications of Broad-Beam Sources,” Technical Note, Commonwealth Scientific Corporation, 1987.
  • Broad-Beam Ion Sources," Review of Scientific Instruments, Jan. 1990.
  • "Broad-Beam Ion Sources: Present Status and Future Directions," J. of Vacuum Science and Technology A, May/June 1986.

Process Applications

  • “Ion Beam Sputtering” in Thin Films for Optical Systems, Mercel Dekker, Inc., 1995
  • "Modification of Thin Film Properties by Ion Bombardment During Deposition," in Ion Bombardment Modification of Surfaces: Fundamentals and Applications, Elsevier Science Publishers B.V., Amsterdam, 1984.
  • "Low Energy Ion Beam Etching," Proc. of Electron and Ion Beam Technology, 1980.
  • “Biased Target Deposition," J. of Vacuum Science and Technology A, Jan./Feb. 2000.
  • "Technology and Applications of Broad-Beam Ion Sources Used in Sputtering: Part I & II Applications," J. of Vacuum Science and Technology, Sept./Oct. 1982.
  • "Material Processing with Broad-Beam Ion Sources," Annual Reviews of Material Science, 1983
  • "Ion Beam Mirror Coating, Status and Outlook," SPIE Proc., Vol. 1047(Mirror and Windows for High Power/High Energy Laser Systems), Jan. 1989.
  • Handbook of Ion Beam Processing Technology, Noyes Publications, 1989.
    • "Perspective on Past, Present and Future Uses of Ion Beam Technology,".
    • "Gridded Broad-Beam Ion Sources,"
    • "Hall-Effect Ion Sources."